In the precolonial period, indigenous South African cuisine was characterized by the use of a very large section of nourishment within fruits, nuts, bulbs, leaves and other products gathered from wild plants and by the hunting of wild game. The domestication of cattle within the region about 3 thousand years ago by Khoisan groups enabled the use of milk products and the availability of new chicken on demand. However, during the colonial period the seizure of communal land in Southern Africa restricted and discouraged general agriculture and wild harvesting, and reduced the extent of land available to black people. Decline of indigenous cookery.
Urbanization from the nineteenth 100 years onward, coupled with close manage over agricultural production, led black Southern Africans to rely more and more on comparatively expensive, industrially-processed foodstuffs like wheat flour, clean rice, mealie maize food and sugar. Many times these nourishment were imported or processed by clean wholesalers, mills and factories. The consequence was to drastically restrict the section of components and baking styles used by indigenous cooks. On the other hand, some imported food plants maize, tomatoes have expanded the dietary section of indigenous cooks. Of these maize is the highest many significant – it was integrated to such an extent into the general diet that it is many times assumed to be an indigenous plant.
Popular nourishment in technological Southern Africa are chicken, limes, garlic, ginger, chili, tomatoes, onions and many spices. South Africa was settled from the seventeenth 100 years onwards by colonists from Portugal, the Netherlands, Germany, France, and the United Kingdom. These colonists brought European cookery styles with them. Traditional cookery of Southern Africa is many times referred to as Cape Dutch. This cuisine is characterized by the use of spices for example nutmeg, allspice and warm peppers.
The Cape Dutch cookery style owes at fewest as many to the cookery regarding the slaves brought by the Dutch East South asia Business to the Cape from Bengal, Java and Malaysia as it does to the European styles of cookery imported by settlers, and this is reflected within the use of eastern spices and the names provided to many of these dishes. Curry dishes are well-known with lemon sip in Southern Africa between people of all ethnic origins; many dishes came to the place with the thousands of Indian labourers brought to Southern Africa within the nineteenth century. Food outlets and fast food outlets. South Africa should be spoke about to hold an unique chewing out culture. While there exists some food outlets that specialize in general Southern African dishes or technological interpretations thereof, food outlets featuring other cuisines for example Moroccan, Chinese, West African, Congolese and Japanese should be located in all regarding the primary cities and many regarding the larger towns.
In addition, there exists also a large many home-grown chain restaurants, for example Spur and Dulce Cafe. There shall also be a proliferation of fast food food outlets in Southern Africa. While there exists some worldwide players for example McDonalds and Kentucky Fried Lamb active within the country, they face stiff competition from regional chains for example Nando’s and Steers. Many regarding the diner chains originating from South-Africa have also expanded successfully outside the borders regarding the country. Typical Southern African nourishment and dishes.
Biltong, a salty dried chicken similar to jerky. Bobotie, a dish of Malay descent, is like meatloaf with raisins and with cooked egg on top, and is many times served with yellow rice, sambals, coconut, banana slices, and chutney. Boerewors, a sausage that is traditionally braaied barbecued. Bunny chow, curry stuffed into a hollowed-out loaf of bread. A bunny chow is called Kota by the locals.
Chutney, a tasty cream created from veggie that is usually poured on meat. Frikkadelle – meatballs. Gesmoorde vis, salted cod with potatoes and tomatoes and sometimes served with apricot jam. Hoenderpastei, lamb pie, general Afrikaans fare. Koeksisters return in 3 forms and are a tasty delicacy.
Afrikaans koeksisters are twisted pastries, deep fried and heavily sweetened. Koeksisters located on the Cape Flats are tasty and spicy, shaped like large eggs, and deep-fried. Mageu, a sip created from fermented mealie pap. Mala Mogodu, a regional dish equivalent of tripe. The locals usually like mala mogodu with warm pap and spinach.
Rusks, a rectangular, hard, hard biscuit eaten subsequent to being dunked in tea or coffee; they can be neither home-baked or shop-bought with the highest many well-known brand being Ouma Rusks. Samosa or samoosa, a savoury stuffed Indian pastry that is fried. Smoked or braai’ed snoek, a regional gamefish. Sosaties, grilled marinated chicken on a skewer. Tomato bredie, a lamb and tomato stew.
Trotters and Beans, from the Cape, created from boiled pig’s or sheep’s trotters and onions and beans. Umleqwa, a dish created with free-range chicken. Umngqusho, a dish created from clean maize and sweetener beans. Umphokoqo, an African salad created of maize meal. Umqombothi, a kind of beer created from fermented maize and sorghum.
South Africa is an attractive market for investors who wish to gain exposure to African growth but wish to avoid the pitfalls of less mature markets in terms of liquidity, trading costs, limited data, and transparency. African GDP is forecasted to reach $2.6 trillion by 2020, up from roughly $1.6 trillion today. South Africa is well positioned to play an integral part in this growth, with its mature and competitive industries and proximity to African markets. Additionally, South Africa will benefit from the growth of its biggest export market: China. As such South Africa – uniquely positioned at the confluence of the “Africa” and “BRICS” themes – offers a compelling case for investors with a long-term horizon and the patience to see these opportunities materialize.
In the 10 year period through 2011 Sub-Saharan Africa real GDP grew by 5.76% per year, compared to 1.64% for the United States over that same period. This trend is expected to continue as Africa is forecasted to nearly double its GDP over the next 10 years.
On October 31st of 2011, the United Nations marked the birth of the world’s 7 billionth living person. Though it only took 12 years to go from 6 billion to 7 billion, world fertility rates have been steadily declining, and demographers widely expect global population to level out by 2050 in the 9 to 9.5 billion range. It is the slowdown in fertility rates that creates what is called the “demographic dividend.” When the number of children a woman is expected to bear falls from a high rate to a lower rate, an outsized generation comes of age, followed and preceded by relatively smaller generations. When this “bulge” group reaches adulthood, the demographic dividend kicks in, resulting in a large working population with few dependents. Africa, more than any other continent, is in a sweet spot to reap the next demographic dividend, as can be seen in the below graph.
None of the BRICs can match it: Brazil and Russia have a fertility rate below the replacement rate, China will be greyer than the U.S. by 2020 and than Europe by 2030, and even India is declining to replacement rate fertility. Furthermore, China may actually have fewer productive workers in 2050 than it does today. In fact, Africa will account for both the highest drop in dependency ratio as well as 40% of the additional 2.3 billion increase in the global population between now and 2050. Additionally, unlike China, Africa has not committed rampant sex-selective abortions, which could create major social unrest and thus economic upheaval in China by the 2020s, just as Africa will be coming of age.
In the meantime, however, China propels global economic growth, and Africa is no exception. China is Africa’s largest trading partner, accounting for 12% of African exports. China’s importance to African trade cannot be overstated. Through the first three quarters of 2011, trade between China and Africa reached $126.9 billion, according to the China Ministry of Commerce. This represents a 30% change compared to the same period one year ago and is in line with the break-neck pace of growth of 28% per year over the last 10 years. Though Africa needs China’s help in developing its infrastructure, the relationship is clearly important to China as well. China’s Outward Direct Investment in Africa increased from 2.6% of its total ODI in 2003 to 9.8% in 2008. By 2010, China had established diplomatic relationships with 49 of the 54 countries on the African continent and had direct investments in 48 countries.
China’s motives are unambiguous: to feed its insatiable demand for energy and natural resources. In fact, China’s strategy is not all that different from how Western countries have traditionally approached Africa, with the notable exception of China’s lack of involvement in Africa’s domestic politics. Although the relationship is not without friction, the net benefits of China’s involvement in Africa are widely viewed as positive.
Africa is often said to be overpopulated. But it is quite easy to debunk this myth. The continent is a spacious, rich and arable landmass that can support its population well into the foreseeable future.
It should be obvious in this discussion that our goal is definitely not to contribute to the ‘politically correct’ rhetoric bandied about incessantly which calls for some ‘decrease’ in African population because we do not believe that Africa, in the first instance, is overpopulated. We must now examine this issue. The population argument is usually advanced on a number of fronts. First, there is a ‘theory’ that the given landmass which presently defines Africa and its various so-called nation-states cannot sustain the existing populations, but, more critically, the ‘projected populations’ in years to come. We shall examine the degree to which this ‘theory’ is able to stand up to serious scientific scrutiny first by comparing African landmass vis-à-vis its population and those of some of the countries of the World.
African population is currently 1 billion covering an incredibly vast landmass. Ethiopia’s landmass is 471,775 sq miles, five times the size of Britaish 94,226 sq miles. Yet Britain’s population of 62 million is three-quarters that of Ethiopia’s at 83 million. As for Somalia, it is 2.6 times the size of Britain but has a population of only 9 million. Sudan and South Sudan provide an even more fascinating comparison. Whilst both countries are 10 times the size of Britain, they support a population of 45 million – about 70 per cent the size of Britain. In fact the Sudans have a landmass equal to that of India which is populated by 1.22 billion people i.e. more than the population of all of Africa! Britain is one-tenth the size of the Democratic Republic of the Congo which has a landmass of 905,562 sq miles, similar to the Sudans and India. In other words, the DRC is about ten times the size of Britain but with a population of 71 million, just nine million more than the population of the latter.
Second, let us examine similarly sized countries. France has a landmass of 211,206 sq miles close to Somalia’s. However, France’s population of 65 million is about seven times the population of Somalia. Similarly, Botswana is slightly larger than France at 254,968 sq miles but with a population of 2 million, a minuscule proportion of France’s. Uganda’s landmass at 91,135 sq miles is comparable to Britain’s, yet with a population of only 33 million. Similarly, Ghana’s landmass of 92,099 sq miles makes it approximately equal to the size of Britain. Ghana is however populated by only 25 million people, far less than one-half Britain’s population.
Finally, we should turn to the question of resource, its availability or lack of it, and therefore its ability or inability to support the African population – another component of African ‘over-population’ fallacy. Well over 50 per cent of Uganda’s arable land, some of the richest in Africa, remains uncultivated. Were Uganda to expand its current food production significantly, not only would it be completely self-sufficient, but it would be able to feed all the countries contiguous to its territory without difficulty. It must be stressed here that Uganda does not need any GM food technology to acquire this capability. Indeed no African country requires any shred of GM technology to acquire food sufficiency and security. None, whatsoever.
Changes on the African climate are threatening the useful agricultural and tourism industries. These two places make up a significant part of Kenya’s earnings. A report suggests that tourism in Africa, which makes up for three per cent of the world’s tourism, could adjust with climate alter.
The report says increased warming will induce a lot of adjustments in the international climate technique during the 21st century. The threat of flood dangers and water pollution-related diseases in low lying regions and coral reef bleaching due to climate change could effect negatively on tourism. Mozambique is expanding as a tourist destination, nonetheless in 2000 it was in the planet news due to enormous floods which took the lives of hundreds of individuals, these floods have occurred again in early 2007, deterring tourist from the lovely nation.
Africa is property to the best Safari parks in the globe, like the Masai Mara Game Reserve in Kenya and the Kruger National Park in South Africa, but due to international warming and climate change it is anticipated that about 10% of the species existing populations are projected to decline in coming years.
By 2080 it is estimated that locations of arid and semi arid land in Africa are probably to increase by 5 – eight %. Crop income in Africa could fall by up to 90 per cent by 2100, and wheat production – a single of Africa’s greatest sources of earnings – in Africa might disappear altogether by the 2080.
If sea level was to rise by only 1 meter, the coastal locations of Kenya would loss massive places which 3 primary crops develop in the nation, namely mangoes, cashew nuts, and coconuts, loss of these crops could expense the nation practically US$ 500 million. If sea levels do rise it is feared that costal agriculture could be at risk of inundation and soil salination.
Malaria distribution has currently enhanced in the previous decade and is expected to continue to move into these previously cooler regions, it is estimated that by the 2080s an additional 80 million people will likely be at threat of malaria.
Humans’ ability to recover from disease and illness could also be affected by climate alter in Africa. Several countries are currently suffering from enormous HIV / Aids pandemics, and with modifications in moisture and temperature in the continent ailments could turn into harder to fight.
Kenya is a medium sized country on the eastern part of Africa. It measures approximately 580,367 km2 and it is the 47th largest country in the world. Its capital city is Nairobi which is in central Kenya. Other major cities include Kisumu and Mombasa while major towns are Nakuru, Kericho, Eldoret and Nyeri. Kenya has forty different ethnic groups which fall under Bantu, Nilotic and Cushitic speakers. The Bantu group is the largest with the Agikuyu community dominating it. Kenya is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south east, Lake Victoria and Uganda to the west, Somalia to the north east, Ethiopia to the north and Tanzania to the south.
The biggest ethnic group is the Kikuyu. They are part of the Bantu speaking people. They occupy the fertile slopes of Mount Kenya and they are mostly farmers. The name Kenya was derived from the kikuyu, kamba and embu names for Mount Kenya. These are Kirinyaga, Kiinya, and Kirinyaa. They believed that the mountain was God’s resting place. They treated the mountain as a holy and sacred place. The word Kenya means God’s resting place.
Kenya has a tropical climate. At the coast and central Kenya, it is very humid. The northern part of Kenya is very dry. The Great Rift Valley passes through the Kenya’s highland making the region very fertile and it the best in the area for crop production. Kenya is also home of many different species of animals and birds. This is because o9f the conducive climate. The big five which are the lion, rhino, elephant, buffalo and leopard can be found here too.
Kenya is made up of more than forty different tribes. All these people have different ways of life. Though they are different, there are things that join them. These are religion, food, language and Nairobi- the center of all life in the country. Most Kenyans are either Christians or Muslims. A few are still stuck to traditional worship. The major religious group is the Christians and are more than 80% of the entire country’s population. Many christian groups have emerged lately. Some are Catholics, Presbyterians, Pentecosts and charismatic Pentecosts.
The main food in Kenya is the ugali. This is very popular and every household regardless of whether it is rich or poor has it a few times a week. Ugali is a solid mixture of water and maize meal flour. It is takes with meat, kales [sukuma wiki] milk and other forms of vegetables. Other Kenya cultural meals are irio, steak, maharagwe, mtuza wa samaki pilau and githeri. Depending on how financially privileged a family is, they will take on eof the meals every now and then. Meat is a delicacy in the country.
The official language is English. This is used country wide in major institutions and offices. The national language is Kiswhili. This is more famous and used even in remote towns and villages. Swahili unites the whole country as one. It is threatening the other tribal languages as most people born in urban areas do not know their mother tongue. Music is also a Kenyan cultural theme that unites them. Benga is very popular and Kenyan hip hop among the young generation.